|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 14-18
Comparative evaluation of lip prints among Indian and African students
Surya Gunasekaran, Nazargi Mahabob, Somasundaram Elangovan, Suman Jhansi Lakshmi, Senthil Kumar Balasubramaniam, Deepika Rajendran
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Web Publication||25-May-2018|
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Cheiloscopy is the study of characteristic pattern of elevations and depressions on labial mucosa. It is unique for every individual-like fingerprints and hence can be used to determine the sex and for personal identity. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare and to determine the distribution of lip print pattern among Indian and African students studying in KSR Educational Institutions, Tiruchengode. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on randomly selected 100 college students (50 Indian and 50 African) studying in KSR Educational institutions, Tiruchengode. The study included a total of 50 Indians (30 males and 20 females) and 50 Africans (30 males and 20 females). Materials used in the present study were bond paper, oil-free lipstick or matted lipstick, lipstick applying brush, and magnifying glass with light lip prints was taken on folded bond paper and analyzed using magnifying lens. Tsuchihashi's classification of lip prints was used, and statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: Our study showed that Type II was the most predominant pattern among Indian males, and Type III was the most predominant pattern among African males, whereas Type I was the most predominant pattern among both Indian and African females. Hence, these results confirm the uniqueness of lip prints for every individual and show its variation according to gender. Conclusion: Based on the lip anatomy and their prints, it is possible to find out the races. Further, research needs to be done among a larger population to prove lip prints as a promising tool for personal identification and to arrive at guidelines regarding racial predilection.
Keywords: Cheiloscopy African, Indian, personal identification, racial
|How to cite this article:|
Gunasekaran S, Mahabob N, Elangovan S, Lakshmi SJ, Balasubramaniam SK, Rajendran D. Comparative evaluation of lip prints among Indian and African students. Saudi J Forensic Med Sci 2018;1:14-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Gunasekaran S, Mahabob N, Elangovan S, Lakshmi SJ, Balasubramaniam SK, Rajendran D. Comparative evaluation of lip prints among Indian and African students. Saudi J Forensic Med Sci [serial online] 2018 [cited 2023 Mar 24];1:14-8. Available from: https://www.sjfms.org/text.asp?2018/1/1/14/233187
| Introduction|| |
Personal identification is becoming increasingly important not only in legal medicine but also in criminal investigation, identification, and genetic research. A wide range of methods is available for this purpose out of which, the best and most often used is fingerprints. An alternative method of identification is cheiloscopy, which is the study of the grooves and furrows present on the red part of the human lips. Like fingerprints, the lip grooves are permanent and is unaltered from 6th week of intrauterine life till death. These grooves occur as distinct patterns or types and are unique to each individual and thus can be used to fix the identity of a person.
To further categorize the lip prints, Suzuki and Tsuchihashi 8, in 1970, devised a classification method of lip prints, and termed as “Figural linearum labiorum rubrorum” which is as follows [Figure 1]:
- Type I – A clear-cut groove running vertically across the lip
- Type I'– Partial-length groove of Type I
- Type II – A branched or Y-shaped pattern
- Type III – An intersected or criss-cross pattern
- Type IV – A reticular pattern
- Type V– Other patterns.
Aims and objectives
The aim of the study is to compare and to determine the distribution of lip print pattern among Indian and African students studying in KSR Educational Institutions, Tiruchengode.
- To find out that if there is any similarity of lip print between Indian and African students
- To find out which type of lip print is predominant in each compartment of the upper and lower lip of both races
- To find out which type of lip print is predominant among the male or female of each races.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study was conducted on randomly selected 100 college students (50 Indian and 50 African) studying in KSR Educational institutions, Tiruchengode. The study included a total of 50 Indians (30 males and 20 females) from KSR Insitu te of Dental Sciences and Research and 50 Africans (30 males and 20 females) from KSR College of Arts and Science.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
All individuals were aged between 18–24 years. Lips which were normal and free of any disease were included in the study. Individuals with known hypersensitivity to lipsticks, with any malformation or inflammation or trauma or scar or any other abnormality of the lip, were excluded from the study.
The materials used in the present study were bond paper, oil-free lipstick or matted lipstick, and lip stick applying brush and magnifying glass with light.
Before applying the lipstick, the participants were asked to clean the lips. Then, the dark-colored lipstick was applied using a lipstick brush and asked the participant to rub for even distribution. The glue portion of the cellotape sticks onto the surface of the lip. The recorded lip print was pasted on the bond paper [Table 1]. Two duplicate prints of each individual were taken to avoid any improper prints or errors.
For personal identification,
- The lip prints were divided into four quadrants by a horizontal line that divides the upper lip from the lower lip and a median vertical line that divides lips into the right and left halves; the right upper as the first quadrant, the left upper as the second quadrant, the left lower as the third quadrant, and the right lower as the fourth quadrant. The lip prints were observed using magnifying lens and were categorized into particular type depending on the predominant pattern. Then, the lip print patterns were classified as per Suzuki and Tsuchihashi's classification [Table 2]
- The analysis of the prints was based on the numerical superiority of the patterns of the line visible in the area of study. If two patterns predominated, the lip print was included in the study and regarded as undetermined, i.e., Type V [Table 3]. The lip print was analyzed and interpreted in coded paper, and coded paper was then decoded, and these findings were separately entered in Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed with the help of statistician.
|Table 2: Analysis of lip prints based on the numerical superiority pattern of grooves|
Click here to view
The entered data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 21.0 (IBM Corp, NY: Armonk). The Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions wherein a value of P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant (confidence interval of 95% was taken).
| Results|| |
It was observed that each lip either upper or lower have different types of lip prints in different parts of the lips. When the overall pattern was evaluated among all the study participants, our observation revealed that no two individuals had similar lip print pattern, and there is no similarity seen between the races.
The most common pattern of lip print considering all the four quadrants among 100 individuals, i.e., totally 400 quadrants was calculated. The overall common lip print patterns were Type II seen in 116 (29%) patterns, followed by Type III seen in 106 (27%) patterns. However, the least common pattern was Type V seen in only in 13 (3%) members.
The most common pattern of lip print in Indian population for males was Type II (57%) and for females were Type I (40%). The least common pattern found in males was Type I' (4%) and in females were Type V (4%). The most common pattern of lip print in African population for males was Type III (40%) and for females were Type I (46%). The least common pattern found in males Type I' (1%) was and in females were Type V (4%) [Chart 1],[Chart 2],[Chart 3],[Chart 4]. Within the race, Chi-square test for proportion to assess race differences in lip-print patterns showed that lip print patterns in Quadrant II and III were significantly associated with race difference (P< 0.05) whereas lip print patterns Quadrant I and IV were not significantly different for the race.
In the present study, the following were recorded:
- I Quadrant – In Indian population, the most common lip pattern was Type I (55%) in males and Type I (57%) in females. In African population, the most common lip pattern was Type I (40%) in males and in females, both Type II and Type III showed 20% [Table 3]. The distribution of the lip print types in Quadrant I was seen to be statistically significant with P < 0.02
- II Quadrant – In Indian population, the most common lip pattern were Type I (50%) in males and Type I (40%) in females. In African population, the most common lip pattern in males was Type II and Type IV (40%) and in females was Type I (23%) [Table 4]. The distribution of the lip print types in Quadrant II was not statistically significant with P < 0.11
- III Quadrant – In Indian population, the most common lip pattern was Type II (85%) in males and Type II (20%) in females. In African population, the most common lip pattern in males was Type II (40%) and in females were Type I (30%) [Table 5]. The distribution of the lip print types in Quadrant III was not statistically significant with P < 0.15
- IV Quadrant – In Indian population, the most common lip pattern was Type II (65%) in males and Type II (37%) in females. In African population, the most common lip pattern in males was Type II (50%) and in females, these three (Type I, II, and III) patterns seems to be predominant [Table 6]. The distribution of the lip print types in Quadrant IV was seen to be statistically significant with P < 0.25.
| Discussion|| |
Lip prints provide the quantitative and qualitative information by their analysis of the system of furrows, lines, and individual characteristics the labial mucosa. Environmental factors do not affect the furrows and line of lip prints, but the alteration in pattern and morphology of grooves, size, and shape can be rendered by the surgical treatment or major trauma.
Examination of the variation in lip patterns among the people of different genders will help in forensic investigation and standardized the identification system. Cheiloscopy is used as a source of DNA because the epithelial cells could be retrieved from the lip prints which increase its identifying value in forensic.
The lip prints were first described by Fischer in 1902 as the furrows on the red part of the human lips; however, the use of lip prints in personal identification and criminalization was recommended only in 1932 by Edmond Locard, one of France's greatest criminologists. In 1960, Santos put his opinion that distinct patterns could be divided into different groups.
Suzuki and Tsuchihashi in their study over a long period, confirmed not only lip print singularity, but also lip response to trauma; in fact, these authors observed that after healing, the lip pattern was equal to that before the injury occurred. Lip prints can be obtained up to 30 days after being produced.
In 1990, Kasprzak conducted a research for period of 5 years on 1500 persons to explain in detail the practical use of cheiloscopy  Vahanwala in 2000 conducted a study of lip patterns and stated that Type I and I' are more common in females and Type III and IV are more common in males. In another study by Vahanwala and Parekh, it was shown that all four quadrants with the same type of lip prints were predominantly seen in female participants and male participants showed the presence of different pattern in a single individual. In this present study, we did not found the predominance of same type of lip prints in all four quadrants in both the genders.
Sivapathasundharam et al. studied the lip prints of Indo-Dravidian population and noted that Type III pattern was predominant whereas in this present study, Type II was predominant in the Indian population. In this study, Type V was the least common presenting lip print, which was in contrast study done by Prabhuet al., among Goan population, where Type V pattern was most predominant pattern. Similar findings have been found in the present study and studies done by many authors [Table 7].,,,,,,,
In fact, in cheiloscopy, one should also analyze lip anatomy considering their thickness and the position. The lips can be horizontal, elevated, or depressed and according to their thickness, it is possible to identify the following four groups:
- Thin lips (common in the European, Caucasian)
- Medium lips (from 8 to 10 mm, are the most common type)
- Thick or very thick lips (usually having an inversion of the lip cord and usually seen in Negroes)
- Mix lips (usually seen in orientals).
Indians have medium lips with mild lip cord; whereas Africans have thick lips with prominent lip cords. Based on their lip anatomy and their lip prints, it is possible to identify racial identification.
Research studies regarding the use of lip prints as evidence in racial discrimination are inadequate. Difference studies have shown that Type l pattern are the most predominant patterns among females. In our studies, Type II was the most predominant pattern among Indian males and Type III was the most predominant pattern among African males whereas Type I was the most predominant pattern among both Indian and African females [Chart 1],[Chart 2],[Chart 3]. Manypady compared Indian and Chinese individuals and found that the incidence of Type II pattern was highest among Indians. Ghimire et al. found that Type I as the most predominant pattern in all the four quadrants followed by Type II, Type I', Type IV, Type III, and Type V in Nepalese population. Nagpal et al., study showed that Type III as the most predominant pattern in Malaysian males and Type I and Type I' as the most predominant in Malaysian females.
| Conclusion|| |
Forensic odontology is an accepted method in the criminal justice system worldwide. The presence of lip prints is conclusive of the fact whether the beholder was a visitor or is related to the site of crime or not. Based on the lip anatomy and their prints, it is possible to find out the races. Further research needs to be done among a larger population to prove lip prints as a promising tool for personal identification and to arrive at guidelines regarding racial predilection.
The authors are grateful to all the participants who participated voluntarily and cooperated for the success of the study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]